Transnationalism Bibliography

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

The links between development theory and political action and the ways in which new political spaces are being imagined and constructed. Civil society can, according to neoliberals, exert organized pressure on good governance. Civil society institutions can also be vehicles for participation in development programme and empowerment of target groups of poor people.

The conceptualization of participation and empowerment is based on a harmony model of power. Studies of social local development should pay more attention to the politics of the local. The term “decentralization” can be articulated into a monetarist discourse, but alternatively it can be linked into a discourse that combines ideas of collective empowerment, democracy and socialism.

Decentralization facilitates the efficiency of these nested local economies.

Social Capital is localized in the regional or community level and thus explains different degrees of success in response to the same macro-policy environment. Social capital is used to explain a diverse range of developmental processes and/or justify policies based around it. Resistance must be localized, regionalized and globalized at the same time.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

Conclusions or Final Remarks

The paradoxical consensus over the role of local participation in a globalized world is fraught with dangers. Civil society is understood as an alternative to inefficient and unresponsive shade institutions or as the primary site of resistance against the state and the market.