Transnationalism Bibliography

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

Research on Transmigrants. More and more, immigrants to the United States and other developed countries retain strong political as well as emotional ties with their countries of origin, and their growing numbers make them a force to be reckoned with in their new home countries as well.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

Increasing numbers of migrant-sending states are reconstituting their state policies and ideologies to encompass populations living abroad. Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Portugal, and Japan are among a wide range of states that are bent on reclaiming emigrant populations, as well as their descendants. These states are explicitly redefining themselves as transnational. Within immigrant-receiving countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, a range of actors, from government officials to educational institutions, are responding to immigrant populations by proposing a concept of multiculturalism that recognizes immigrant roots but envisions them as “transplanted” within the multicultural terrain of their new country.

Many nations are reconsidering the rules regarding transnationals. Transmigrants may not be expected to return to their homeland to fight a civil war, but they are expected to send money. Homeland governments also increasingly advise transmigrants to become citizens in their host countries in order to assist their ancestral lands by voting and lobbying in ways that are beneficial to them.

Conclusions or Final Remarks

Demographers and policy makers need to study the questions raised by transnationalism and whether the world in which we live is qualitatively changing to the detriment of the majority of the world’s people, and if so, why. These questions are about those of us who are transmigrants and the states that continue to claim us as their own. But they are equally about how those of us who claim birth rights in states that are now experiencing major settlements of transmigrants understand our pasts, presents, and futures.