Transnationalism Bibliography

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

There are some objections for treating Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO) as an International Security problem: TCO is an economic not a political organization, do not challenge States as terrorism does and is consider as a crime, so it is a domestic problem. The emergence of TCO is a result of underlying changes in global politics and economics, which have been conductive to the development of all transnational organizations. Interdependence has grown between nations and has made easier the emergence of a single global market for both licit and illicit facilities. With the globalization of trade and consumer demand, it is natural that criminal organizations become increasingly transnational in character. The increase of international economic activity has made it easier to hide illicit transactions, products and movements because law enforcement agencies and customs officers are unable to inspect all the cargoes and people coming into their territories.

The rise of mass consumers markets have encouraged the growth of organized crime in the US. The size of this criminal organizations varies: Colombian cartels focus only in drug trafficking and Chinese triads include extortion, credit card fraud, prostitution and drug trafficking. TCO is diverse in structure, position and membership. What they have in common is that they are highly mobile and adaptable and are able to operate across national borders with great simplicity.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

Transnational organizations and Transnational Criminal Organizations.

Conclusions or Final Remarks

Governments have found difficult to pursue a consistent and coherent set of policies in which the activities of parts of the bureaucracy complement rather than undercut one another. The battle against drug-trafficking is a battle between a government compose of multiple organizations with different objectives and interests, and an organization with a single goal, which is the maximization of profits.