Transnationalism Bibliography

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

Conceptualize more clearly the different types of phenomena subsumed under the heading of transnational social spaces. The reality of transnational social spaces (TSS) indicates, first, that migration and re-migration may not be definitive, irrevocable and irresistible decisions. Second, even those migrants an refugees who have settle for a considerable time outside the country of origin, frequently entertain strong transnational links. Third, these links can be a more informal nature, such as intra-household or family ties, or they can be institutionalize, such as political parties entertaining branches in various countries of immigrations and emigration.

TSS are delimited by pentatonic relationships between the government of the immigration state, civil society organizations in the country of immigration, the rules of the country of emigration, civil society groups in the emigration state, and the transnational group, or national, religious and ethnic minorities. Transnationalization overlaps with globalization but typically has more limited purview.

There are three types of resources within social ties that allow individuals to cooperate with organizations. (1) Social exchange in form of mutual obligations. (2) Reciprocity as social norm, and third, Solidarity with others in a group that share similar positions. Transnational communities characterize situations in which international movers and stayers are connected by dense and strong social and symbolic ties over time across space to patters of networks and circuits in two countries. For economic transnational spaces to develop, transnational networks of businesspeople plus beneficial conditions to invest economic capital in the original sending country.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

Transnational Social Spaces: (1) covers diverse phenomena such as transnational small groups, transnational circuits and transnational circuits. (2) Factors conductive to the formation of transnational social spaces not only include favourable technological variables, troubled nation-state formation and contentious minority policies in the developing world, and restrictions such as socio-economic discrimination.

Conclusions or Final Remarks

Immigrant culture cannot be seeing as baggage or template, not as something to be figuratively packed and unpacked, uprooted and transplanted. The notion of singular political or cultural trajectories envisaged by the canonical theories of assimilation and ethnic pluralism, and container concepts of immigrant adaptation has to be questioned.