@article{Glick-Schiller2004, author="Nina Glick-Schiller and Georges Fouron", title="Everywhere We Go, we are in Danger: Ti Manno and the Emergence of a Haitian Transnational Identity", year="2004", journal="American Ethnologist", volume="17", number="May", pages="329-347", annote="

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

We shall demonstrate that for a block immigrant population, a seemingly “ethnic” identity such as “Haitian” is fluid and multifaceted and is shaped by conditions that transcend national boundaries.

Ethnicity is used to indicate cultural differences of single population. But whether ethnicity is define in terms of cultural distinctiveness, explained as a reaction to structural constraints, or approached as ideology, the concept of ethnicity seems inadequate to deal with race. While race as a social category emerged with global capitalism, race per se also continues to actuate social relations in local contexts. Ti Manno lived the black immigrant experience firsthand in a career that included periods of residence in both the US and Haiti. Ti Manno actually talked of uniting to rebuild Haiti, but this sector of the Haitian immigrant leadership emphasized the need to unite to improve the conditions of Haitians in the US. An examination of Ti Manno’s articulation of the Haitian immigrant experience and the response of Haitian immigrants to his “message” help us to develop and understanding of the identity of today’s black immigrants.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

The concept of transnationalism thus captures more effectively the manner in which Haitians perceive their experience and identity than do descriptions of Haitians as an “ethnic group,” as simply “blacks” in the US, or as part of a particular class.

Conclusions or Final Remarks

Haitian identity transcended the categories of race and ethnicity and transcended national boundaries, yet it remained profoundly rooted in geography and history.

Ethnic Groups are forced to obtain resources from the society in which they reside.

", keyword0="Haiti", keyword1="Identity", keyword2="Transnational Identities", type="journal" }