@article{Henderson2000, author="Hazel Henderson", title="Transnational Corporations and Global Citizenships", year="2000", journal="The American Behavioral Scientist", volume="43-8", number="May", pages="1231-1261", annote="

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

How corporations are evolving to address the broader demands of their costumers, shareholders, employees, and community stakeholders. Today, the state is everywhere in retreat and similar fears are now focused on the ascendance of markets and private corporate power in our globalized economy. Many states have tightened regulations, often under political pressures from movements of their citizens, labour unions, stockholders, human rights activists, and environmentalists

The missing link in both conventional economics and political science involves overlooking, downplaying, or even psychological states for denial among policy makers, academics, and the media of the extent to which governments at all levels have allowed themselves to become puppets of corporations and financial special interests. Today, a new moral force challenges corporate power. The astonishing rise of voluntary, grassroots, civil societies is evident in industrial countries both the North and the South.

The increasing influence of the third force civil sectors is directly challenging corporations to accept responsibility and accountability formerly demanded of governments. The more global freedom of corporate citizens threatens the health, welfare, and even the “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” of real human citizens, the more their movements will grow faster and democracies will spread.

Transnational corporations are rapidly globalizing themselves in terms of cultural diversity and eliminating home-country bias. This allows cultural learning within these corporations and some dispersal of power from industrial countries, as well as opportunities for many citizens of developing countries from promotion to management positions. The communications activities of transnational corporations, particularly global media conglomerates, advertising and marketing companies, and their client corporations, have spread consumerist corporate cultures of individualism, hedonism, and unsustainable levels of per capita resource use.

As the global standards are raised through voluntary action and further partnership agreements with governments, employees, and civil society, this “ethical floor” under today’s global playing field can be raised. All corporate power is based on money systems and their manipulation by governments. Corporate obligations, currently exclusive to their stockholders, actually include other stockholders; employees, customers, contractors, suppliers, the neighbourhoods and communities in which they operate, and the general public and the environment.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

Transnational corporation

Conclusions or Final Remarks

Global corporations, by garnering state contracts for research and development and other positive externalities, together with their private investments, have accelerated technological innovation, which has led to globalization of industrialism and technology, information and finance; work employment, and migration; the arms trade; human effects on the biosphere; and culture, poverty, and citizenship.

Today’s global mediocracy exhibits levels of interpretation of cultures, societies, institutions, and corporations that are unprecedented.

Global changes and interpretations are breaking down the whole idea of earlier concepts such as limited liability and leading to the social innovations at the corporate/government/citizen interface as described and advocated in this article.

", keyword0="Nation-State", keyword1="Transnational Corporations", type="journal" }