@article{Burbach1999, author="Roger Burbach and William I. Robinson", title="The Fin de Siecle Debate: Globalization as Epochal Shift", year="1999", journal="Science & Society", volume="63-1", number="Spring", pages="10-39", annote="

Question(s) addressed by the author and working arguments

Makes the case of globalization as an epochal shift. Globalization is the fourth epochal shift in the history of capitalism. The first: Mercantilism and primitive accumulation (1492-1489), The second: Industrial capitalism, rise of bourgeoisie, formation of the nation-state (1789-1900), The third: Corporate capitalism and financial industrial corporation, socialist alternative (1900-1970). The fourth: Information age, collapse of socialist alternative (1971- ?).

In the 70s started the transition form of the nation-state phase of world capitalism with its distinct institutional, organizational, political and regulatory structures to a new, still emerging, transnational phase. The currently epochal shift profoundly affects the roles of governments and the nation-state and the way in which class struggle is conducted and manifested.

The central feature of the ongoing epochal shift is the transnationalization of production and productive system and the transnationalization of capital bourgeoisie.

The nation-state has ceased to be the organizational principle of capitalism.

The integration of capital, goods and services market explains this process.

Since transnational capital is free to roam the world, tapping the cheapest labor markets, the most favorable factor costs, regulatory environments and political conditions, its structural power over labor worldwide has been greatly enhanced. The old trade off between classes is no longer functional because today capitalist are not restricted to operate in their state’s market.

Transnational capital and transnational bourgeoisie utilize national state apparatuses to create the conditions for global capital accumulation. The transnational bourgeoisie exercises its class power through two channels: Supranational Institutions and national governments. Supranational institutions constitute an emergent transnational state that hasn’t yet acquired a centralized institutional form.

Conceptual references to transnational – transnationalism

transnational bourgeoisie

Conclusions or Final Remarks

Since we are living a new phase of capitalism, new forms of organizing the popular classes to challenge capital effectively are needed. A transnational platform is necessary to pursue this goal.

", keyword0="Globalization", keyword1="Nation-State", type="journal" }